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:: Volume 18, Issue 6 (3-2017) ::
2017, 18(6): 455-469 Back to browse issues page
Effects of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds on Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal Axis and Reproductive Health A Review
Rahmatollah Parandin Dr , Morteza Behnam Rassouli Dr
Payame Noor University , rparandin@gmail.com
Abstract:   (7521 Views)

Introduction: The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis controls reproductive function. The hypothalamus secretes GnRH that is transported to the anterior pituitary gland to stimulate the release of the gonadotrophic hormones. Which act on the gonads to stimulate sexual maturation, gametogenesis and steroidogenesis. Although GnRH neurons are a key component of the HPG axis, other neurotransmitters or neuropeptides in the hypothalamus, such as glutamate, GABA, galanin, dopamine and kisspeptin have been suggested to be involved in the regulation of GnRH secretion. In addition to GnRH neurons, pituitary and gonads, some of these neuronal populations such kisspeptin are extremely sensitive to changes in the levels of steroid hormones and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). Several EDCs, such as pesticides, bisphenol A, phthalates, tamoxifen, phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens can interact with the female and male reproductive system function and lead to disruption of endocrine function. Reproductive system development and function may be susceptible to the effects of such EDCs. By far, the greatest concerns for the potential adverse effects of EDCs have focused on their deleterious impact on reproductive health. It has been demonstrated under laboratory conditions and epidemiological studies that EDCs can exert detrimental effects especially during hormonal critical periods such as fetal and neonatal periods on the reproductive system. This article reviews some evidence that EDCs can impair the HPG axis and reproductive function.

Keywords: Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, Endocrine disrupting compounds, Reproductive health
Full-Text [PDF 740 kb]   (1937 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Review | Subject: Physiology
Received: 2016/10/26 | Accepted: 2017/01/9 | Published: 2017/03/15
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Parandin R, Behnam Rassouli M. Effects of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds on Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal Axis and Reproductive Health A Review. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2017; 18 (6) :455-469
URL: http://ijem.sbmu.ac.ir/article-1-2154-en.html

Volume 18, Issue 6 (3-2017) Back to browse issues page
مجله ی غدد درون‌ریز و متابولیسم ایران، دو ماهنامه  پژوهشی مرکز تحقیقات غدد درون‌ریز و متابولیسم، Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
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