Introduction: Retinopathy is the most common long-term complication of diabetes mellitus, and diabetic retinopathy is a complex disease, in which that inflammation plays a critical role. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between insulin resistance as a known inflammatory marker and diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes. Methods and Materials: In this study 342 patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled, and their demographic data were recorded. HbA1c, FBS, lipid profiles and insulin levels were measured for all patients. Insulin resistance was calculated by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance(HOMA-IR) formula. Following ophthalmologic examination (fundoscopy) patients were divided according to retinal involvement. The relation between HOMA-IR with diabetic retinopathy was evaluated. Results: Mean age of patients was 55.05± 9.8 years, and 30.4% of all patients had diabetic retinopathy. This analysis showed that HbA1c and duration of diabetes are the only independent predictive factors for diabetic retinopathy. Insulin resistance was not significantly different between patients with and without retinopathy but median level of HOMA–IR was significantly higher in patients with diabetic proliferative retinopathy compared with patients with non proliferative diabetic retinopathy (2.1(0.7-6.6) Vs 1.2(0.5-2.8), P=0.021). Conclusions: This data suggests that the insulin resistance may play a role in diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes.